How does Two Stage Compressor work? | Single Stage Compressor Vs Two Stage Compressor

What is Two Stage Compressor?

A compressor in which gas or air is compressed in two compression stages is known as a two-stage compressor. In the 2-stage air compressor, the gas is compressed two times.

This type of compressor uses two compression chambers for gas compression. Each compression chamber has one piston. The first compression chamber of this compressor has more diameter than the second compression chamber.

The 2 stage compressors are used for high-pressure applications.

These compressors are more efficient than single-stage compressors. A single-stage compressor compresses the gas in a single stage, while a two-stage compressor compresses the gas in two stages.

What is a Single Stage Compressor?

A compressor that can compress the fluid in a single stage is known as a single-stage compressor. A single-stage compressor contains only one compression chamber and a piston.

This compressor is less efficient than the 2-stage air compressor. However, these are best for small applications such as workshops, auto shops and circuit breaking.

Working of Single Stage Compressor

The single-stage compressor has a very simple working. It has a compression chamber and a piston. The piston moves upward and downward inside the compression chamber.

The single-stage compressor works in the following way:

single stage compressor working

  1. A crankshaft drives the piston of the compressor. This crankshaft gets power from an electrical motor.
  2. As the motor delivers electricity to the crankshaft, it transfers its motion to the piston and reciprocates it.
  3. When the piston moves from TDC (Top Dead Center) to BDC, a vacuum creates inside the compression chamber.
  4. Due to vacuum generation, the inlet valve opens, and the compressor sucks the environment air.
  5. When the air is sucked according to the requirements, the inlet and outlet valves close, and the piston moves from BDC to TDC (i.e., upward stroke).
  6. During this upward stroke of the piston, it pressurizes the air.
  7. As the piston reaches TDC, the air is compressed according to the desired pressure, the outlet valve opens and transfers compressed air to the storage area.
  8. After the discharge process, the piston again moves from TDC to BDC and the whole process repeats.

Components of the 2-stage Compressor

The two-stage compressor has the following major parts:

  1. Crankshaft
  2. Piston
  3. Inlet and outlet valves
  4. Connecting rod
  5. Cylinder

1) Crankshaft

A crankshaft is one of the most important components of the compressor. It is connected with an electric motor. As the power supply turns on, the motor starts, and it drives the crankshaft. This shaft is connected with the piston via a connecting rod.

2) Cylinder

The cylinder is a large and static part of the 2-stage air compressor. It contains a piston that moves up and down. The two-stage compressor contains two cylinders.

As the piston creates a vacuum inside the first cylinder, the air is sucked from the environment into the cylinder. The reciprocating piston of the 1st cylinder compresses the air; after that, it sends air into the 2nd cylinder for further compression.

The diameter of the 1st cylinder is larger than the diameter of the second cylinder.

3) Piston

The piston is a reciprocating component that reciprocates inside the cylinder. This piston gets motion by the crankshaft through a connecting rod. The double-stage compressor has two pistons (one piston for each cylinder).

4) Inlet and Outlet Valves

The inlet valve and outlet valve are used for fluid suction and discharge. As the vacuum generates inside the cylinder, the inlet valve opens, and the air suction process starts. During this, the outlet remains close. As the air is sucked according to the requirements, the inlet and outlet valves close and compression start.

When the compression process completes, the outlet valve opens, and compressed air is discharged to the desired storage area.

Advantages of Two-stage Compressor

  1. These compressors have more efficiency than single-stage compressors.
  2. They compressed the fluid up to very high pressure.
  3. They are very reliable.
  4. These compressors have a low buildup of moisture,
  5. They have easy operations.

Disadvantages of Two-stage Compressor

  1. They have more parts than single-stage compressors.
  2. They are economical for small applications.
  3. The 2-stage air compressor has large size.
  4. It has a high price.
  5. It has costly maintenance and installation.
  6. This compressor generates very high noise.
  7. It needs additional cooling.

Difference between Single Stage Compressor and Two Stage Compressor

Single Stage CompressorTwo-Stage Compressor
A single-stage compressor completes the compression process in a single stage.A two-stage compressor completes the compression process in two stages.
It compresses the fluid one time.It compresses the fluid two times.
It contains only one cylinder.This compressor has two cylinders.
It has only one piston.It has two pistons.
These compressors are best for small applications.These are ideal for large-scale applications.
It can’t compress fluid up to very high pressure as a 2-stage compressor.It has the ability to compress the fluid up to very high pressure.
A single-stage compressor has lightweight.These are heavyweight compressors.
It is less efficient.It is more efficient.
These have low costs.These have high costs.
It has a small size.It has large size.

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